Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 258
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 13-19

Rheumatoid pain models in rodents and the application of dynamic weight-bearing test


1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sir Run Run Hospital; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
3 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
4 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China

Date of Submission13-Apr-2020
Date of Decision24-Apr-2020
Date of Acceptance27-Apr-2020
Date of Web Publication26-Aug-2020

Correspondence Address:
Jian Qin
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing
China
Nancy Q Liu
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
USA
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/digm.digm_7_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune systemic disease of unknown etiology, characterized by chronic inflammation and synovial infiltration of immune cells. Pain is one of the most dominant symptoms for patients with RA, which affects the health and quality of life. Animal models are helpful to study the pathogenesis of RA and related factors and mechanisms of RA-induced pain, which may aid in the development of new and better treatment strategies. Several animal models of RA have been validated to predict for efficacy in humans that include collagen type II-induced arthritis in rats and mice, adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats, and antigen induced arthritis in several species. However, the quantitative evaluation of pain in animal models is technically challenging. Until recent years, behavior methods are used to characterize acute and chronic pain stages by observing behavioral changes in preclinical arthritis models. Significant progress has been made in pain assessment with the development of nonreflexive tools, dynamic weight-bearing (DWB) apparatus was developed for the measurement of pain in rodents by capturing weight-bearing and surface distribution of the paws. In this article, we summarize several classical animal models of rheumatoid pain as well as discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of DWB test for spontaneous pain used in these models.

Keywords: Dynamic weight-bearing test, rheumatoid pain models, rodents


How to cite this article:
Geng D, Wang L, Liu NQ, Qin J. Rheumatoid pain models in rodents and the application of dynamic weight-bearing test. Digit Med 2020;6:13-9

How to cite this URL:
Geng D, Wang L, Liu NQ, Qin J. Rheumatoid pain models in rodents and the application of dynamic weight-bearing test. Digit Med [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 28];6:13-9. Available from: http://www.digitmedicine.com/text.asp?2020/6/1/13/293507




  Introduction Top


Pain, according to the International Association for the Study of Pain, is defined as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.”[1] Pain is considered to be one of the most dominant symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and the primary reason for seeking medical care. It can be associated with psychological distress, can impair physical and social functioning, and can increase health-care utilization.[2] Up to 70% of the RA patients consider pain improvement as their priority compared with other symptoms of RA.[3],[4] Therefore, it is urgent to deepen our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of pain and develop new therapies.

In both human and animals, we detect pain according to behavior. Pain studies are challenging to perform in humans attributed to the subjective and ethical limitation; therefore, the availability of animal pain models is widely used for pain research.[3] Due to the low cost, ease of handling, and genetic homogeneity, the rodent models, commonly rats and mice, are widely used. However, since animals are unable to express pain, any response to the stimulus could not directly prove the experience of pain. Accordingly, it is necessary to establish indirect methods to quantify and evaluate pain behaviors in nonanesthetized animals which are reliable, reproducible, sensitive, and specific.

Most available methods for assessment of articular nociception in experimental animals present some limitations. For instance, these tests need one direct investigator responsible for application of the nociceptive stimuli (mechanical and thermal) and/or visualization/quantification of the behavior/nociceptive endpoint, which could be considered subjective analyses. Therefore, an objective method, dynamic weight-bearing (DWB), of rodents can be analyzed as a surrogate measure of nociception and is typically considered measures of nonevoked or stimulus-independent pain. It measures the weight-bearing for each of the front and rear paws, weight ratio, and paw surface area in freely moving animals without experimenter interference.[5] It is proven in multiple pain models, including complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation, chronic constriction injury, bone cancer pain, and antigen-induced arthritis.[6],[7],[8]

This review describes the existing animal models of RA that are commonly utilized for preclinical pain studies, discussing their specific advantages and drawbacks. We also will provide an overview of the DWB test which is used to assess pain behaviors in these models.


  Animal Models for Rheumatoid Arthritis Top


The models of RA have been developed in a variety of animal species, but rats and mice are most commonly utilized for studying the progression and pathogenesis of RA, which is attributed to the low cost, homogeneity of the genetic background, and ease of handling. These models could be studied in a variety of animal species and can be classified into two broad categories: (A) induced animal models for RA and (B) genetic models of RA [Table 1].
Table 1: Animal models for rheumatoid arthritis

Click here to view



  Induced Arthritis Models Top


Multiple triggering agents such as live bacteria or bacterial components,[9],[10],[11] oils,[12] ubiquitous antigens,[13] or cartilage-specific proteins,[14],[15],[16] which can induce arthritis in genetically predisposed inbred mice.

Adjuvant arthritis

Adjuvant arthritis (AA) is the first model of RA and can be reproducibly induced in susceptible strains of rats by intradermal injection of Freund's adjuvant containing mycobacterium tuberculosis. It causes a systemic acute inflammation through the immune response mediated by T-cells. About 10–14 days, the symptoms of polyarthritis can be observed, which as similar as human RA, like joint swelling, lymphocyte infiltration, and cartilage degradation. AA is very severe but self-relief. AA in rats usually recovers on their own within a few months. This is a common disadvantage of most animal models compared with the chronic process of human RA. Another characteristic of AA is that once spontaneously relieved, rats can no longer be reintroduced into the body to develop disease.

Collagen-induced arthritis

Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) has been the most commonly used models of RA,[17] the disease is induced by intradermal injections of an emulsion of type II collagen (CII) in CFA. CII is a major component of joint cartilage, CIA is an autoimmune disease mediated by both T- and B-cells immunity to autologous CII, which lead to a polyarthritis in articular and periarticular structures. Arthritis typically develops in 21–25 days after the initial immunization,[18] which is most prominent in the hind and front paws and characterized by synovial inflammatory infiltration and hyperplasia, cartilage degradation, and bone erosions. CIA in mice shares many similar immunological and pathological features with human RA, such as breakage of self-tolerance, targeted cartilage immunity, and T-cell and B-cell activity,[19],[20],[21] which is considered as an ideal model to study the pathogenesis and test therapeutics of RA [Figure 1]. However, a drawback of this model is considerably variable in the pathogenesis and disease course, which depending on the genetic background of the strain, the origin of CII, and environmental factors.[20]
Figure 1: Pathology of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune systemic disease mediated by T-cells and B-cells. T-cell creates interleukin-17 which can stimulate macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. T-cell also expresses receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand, which together with inflammatory cytokines activates the osteoclast leading to bone erosion. Inflammatory cytokines activate synovial cells to produce protease, which can cause cartilage degradation. Rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies are the two most important autoantibodies usually produced by plasma cells. All of these play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

Click here to view


Antigen-induced arthritis

Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) models have been used for around 40 years and now still be used widely.[22] It is induced by immunizing with exogenous antigens such as ovalbumin or methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA). The rodents are inoculated at the base of the tail with the antigen mixed in CFA, 3 weeks later, the same antigen is injected into the knee joint that induces a local inflammation. AIA shares similar histopathological features with human RA, including synovial hyperplasia, perivascular infiltration with lymphocytes and plasma cells, lymphoid follicles, and pannus and cartilage erosions. However, unlike RA, AIA model is a monoarticular disease that affects only the injected joints, it generates an immune response and subsequent arthritis limited to the antigen-induced joint, and demonstrates that the induction of arthritis does not require a joint-specific or endogenous antigen, but any immune response in the joint generates similar symptoms. AIA has a major advantage of applicability to multiple strains of mice, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits.[23],[24],[25] It is most suitable for studying the mechanism of cartilage destruction induced by the mix of immune complex and T-cells reactivity. This model is helpful to study the hyper-reactivity of local T-cells to retained exogenous antigens and to compare it with a similar reaction to autoantigens in CIA.


  Spontaneous Arthritis Models Top


In addition to the induced-arthritis models, arthritis occurs spontaneously in some genetically modified mice, these mice are either deficient in or transgenic for a specific gene of interest. These models provide valuable information about the role of genes in the inflammatory process and provide a tool to study the therapeutic effect of spontaneous development of joint inflammation in mice. Two famous models are K/BxN mouse model and human tumor necrosis factor-transgenic (TNF-Tg) mouse model.

The K/BxN model

The K/BxN spontaneous mouse model of arthritis was first described by the group of Kouskoff,[21] it was found accidentally that when KRN mice are crossed with nonobese diabetic mice (I-A g7), their offspring (K/BxN) developed arthritis spontaneously at the age of 4–5 weeks. The development of arthritis in K/BxN mice is caused by an immune response to the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI).[26] Autoreactive T-cells recognize a peptide from G6PI provided by APCs on I-A g7 class II MHC molecules and activate B cells to produce G6PI-specific autoantibodies.[21],[27] The arthritis could be blocked by the injection of an anti-CD4 antibody in the initiation phase of disease onset, attributes to the crucial role of T-cells, and it will not affect the development of arthritis when inject at a later time. The symptom of arthritis in K/BxN mice is severe and symmetrical and affects principally distal joints, which is similar to human RA in many important respects. Histologically, K/BxN disease is similar to human RA joints, including pannus formation, inflammatory infiltration, and articular erosions. Therefore, K/BxN mice duplicate human RA both in the autoimmune pathophysiology and key disease features.

The tumor necrosis factor-transgenic mouse model

TNF-Tg mouse over-expressing human TNF-α transgene was derived in the early 1990s.[28] Two commonly used TNF-Tg mouse strains are the 3647 and 197 strains.[29] In the 3647 strains, it contains one copy of the transgene and displays a milder arthritis; however, in the 197 strains, it contains multiple copies of transgene and displays more severe arthritis. Compared with CIA and AA, which are acute and self-limiting, the chronic progressive nature of the arthritis in this model closely mimics those of human RA. The histopathological features of symmetrical polyarthritis were also obvious in TNF-Tg mice. The proliferation of synovium as well as the infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells and lymphocytes in synovium space can be observed in every stage from the onset. In the late stage of the disease, pannus formation, articular cartilage destruction, and extensive destruction of fibrous tissue are obvious. At this time, there are a lot of cartilage and subchondral bone erosions in the joints of TNF-Tg mice, and the bone surface is covered by multinuclear TRAP + osteoclast-like cells, mediating between the “erosion front” of synovium and bone surface. Erosive arthritis can also occur when TNF-Tg mice hybridize with RAG-1 knockout mice without T-cells and B-cells.[30] Therefore, TNF-Tg mice can be used to study the etiology of RA without autoimmune disease due to its independence on T-cells and B-cells, which significantly different from other arthritis models. It has been proved that the success of anti-TNF therapy for RA in humans was due to reducing inflammation, alleviating cartilage and bone erosions, and improving patient function and vitality.[31],[32] Therefore, the TNF-Tg mice can be used to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies in RA, particularly in which novel targets are considered to operate downstream of TNF. In addition, the model is particularly useful in determining the different contributions of effector cytokines that regulate inflammation and cartilage and bone destruction. Therefore, TNF-Tg mouse is an excellent model to investigate TNF-induced inflammatory pathways in human disease.


  Dynamic Weight-Bearing Test for Rheumatoid Pain Used in Rodents Top


The experimental model of pathological pain depends on the effective parameter evaluation method. Assessing joint function is a challenge when the animal response is difficult to interpret and requires extensive training for the experimenter. In addition, the correlation between preclinical behavioral responses in trials and clinical responses is unsatisfactory. Proof of this is that approximately 80% of prototype analgesic drugs tested in humans failed in Phase III.[33] Therefore, establishing new animal pain testing standards is essential for developing novel pharmacological therapies to control pain.

Most of the pain assessment methods are based on reflex endpoints and widely used in pain assessment of animal models. Using different types of stimulation to induce pain endpoints is a powerful tool for measuring hyperalgesia. However, the stimulus-evoked endpoints may not truly reflect the spontaneous and persistent pain in humans. Therefore, several new nonreflexive methods have been developed to evaluate spontaneous pain in rats and mice, which could reflect pain experience more accurately in humans.[34],[35],[36] For instance, wheel running or locomotor activity has been validated for effective evaluation of inflammatory pain in mice,[37] which by examining reduced physical activity. Weight-bearing distribution has been a major observation target of pain research, the methods such as static weight-bearing, gait analysis, and DWB have been validated for assessment of pain in rodent models.[36],[38]

The DWB is based on an instrumented floor-cage combined with a video recording to evaluate spontaneous pain in freely moving rodents. It is an efficient and advanced alternative to traditional incapacitance tests for assessing pain sensitivity in your research on analgesic/nociception involving rats and mice. The DWB instrument [Bioseb 2.0 (France);[39],[40],[41] [Figure 2] comprised a transparent plexiglass enclosure (11 cm width × 11 cm length × 22 cm height) with a floor sensor containing around 2000 pressure transducers and a high definition camera placed above. Each mouse was individually placed into the DWB cage and allowed to move freely for a duration of approximately 5 min while a camera recorded each movement. The video recordings and pressure data relayed from the floor sensors were transmitted to a computer and stored for the analysis. The DWB test calculates multiple parameters in freely moving mice, including weight-bearing for each paw (gram and percent of total animal weight), weight for grouped front and rear paws (gram and percent total animal weight), left/right and front/rear weight ratio, surface for each paw (mm 2), surface for grouped front and rear paws (mm 2), and variability for each parameter. Parameters were given for each posture and as a mean for the whole experiment, the duration of different postures (four paws, rearing, and so on) over the whole experiment, and total time spent on each paw over the whole experiment. Following the recordings, the observer verified the accuracy in placement of rear and front right paw, rear and front left paw, and other areas such as the tail. The DWB software then determined surface and pressure parameters automatically.
Figure 2: Instrument of dynamic weight-bearing test. A. High-resolution camera. B. Dynamic weight-bearing cage. C. Sensor pad. D. Handle input to Bioseb software. E and F. Bioseb software for data capture and analysis

Click here to view


DWB is a nonreflexive method for assessment of pain in rodents, it has been validated that it could assess alterations in weight-bearing in inflammatory pain models in both mice and rats.[6],[7],[42],[43] There are several advantages for the use of DWB for the assessment of pain in rodents. (1) Operator independent: most standard pain methods are subject to the influence of experimenter subjectivity. However, the collection and analysis of DWB data are conducted in a nonsubjective way, which may produce more reliable data. (2) Unnecessary stress associated with restraint is eliminated. The animal is allowed to move freely in the enclosure without interference of human factors. This decreases anxiety and stress induced by handling, which result in either stress-induced analgesia or hyperalgesia.[44],[45],[46] (3) Collecting and analyzing more information: compared with static weight-bearing, the DWB test captures more data such as weight-bearing and surface area for all four paws. Since mice are quadrupeds, it can be considered that the data are more reality only when four paws are taken into account. (4) Nonreflexive. DWB is a nonreflexive method for pain assessment. As mentioned above, these methods could reflect the human condition more realistic and may explore drug research more predictive and reliable.[46],[47],[48],[49] (5) Longer observation time: compared with static weight-bearing, DWB offers longer observation time for animals, which is important for improved and more reliable evaluation.[50]

DWB has been validated to be a sensitive and predictive approach for the assessment of joint pain in AIA model, it could detect the recovery based on changes in weight distribution caused by mBSA between affected and nonaffect hind limbs when mice were pretreated with different types of analgesic/anti-inflammatory drugs, it also could distinguish different doses of AIA pain and show the dose–response effects of these drugs for arthritic pain.[8] Furthermore, DWB gives valuable information on joint pain during locomotion.[51] In addition, DWB also provides a new method to evaluate mechanical hypersensitivity in the mouse pain model induced by CFA.[5],[7] A recent study identified that arthritis pain produced by intra-articular injection of collagenase into mice knee, which can be measured reliably and repeatedly by DWB test.[52] Moreover, this method could be used to detect the effect of analgesic drugs.

As described above, the DWB test is a more suitable method for the evaluation of joint pain; however, some limitations should be considered. The arthritis model should be monoarticular since this method compares the differences between the weights exerted by each limb of the animal. Thereby, DWB would not be suitable to assess the joint pain in polyarthritis models such as CIA and collagen antibody-induced arthritis, which are the well-recognized models of RA.[53] Another restriction of DWB is that only one mouse is put into the enclosure each time and assessed around a 5 min period, manual integration of video and sensor data is time consuming. In addition, even if the DWB test enclosure allows freedom of movement, there may be some confinement and displacement associated stress.


  Conclusion Top


In this review, we have attempted to describe several important animal models of RA that are widely used or provide important insights. Although the etiology of RA still remains inconsiderable, there is no single treatment for RA. Among the many available animal models, it has been shown to help understand some of the mechanisms involved and provide key insights into the inflammatory pathophysiology of arthritis, leading to the revolution of biotherapy. In addition, this study recommends the DWB test as well as its advantages and disadvantages. DWB test, as a nonreflexive method, could directly quantify and evaluate pain-like behavior in free-moving animals which are reliable, reproducible, sensitive, and specific. It can be used to evaluate the efficacy of analgesics for joint pain, thereby increasing the predictability of preclinical new analgesics screening.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Loeser JD, Treede RD. The Kyoto protocol of IASP Basic Pain Terminology. Pain 2008;137:473-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro G, Khandker RK, Sato R, Rose A. Piercy impact of rheumatoid arthritis on quality of life, work productivity and resource utilisation: An observational, cross-sectional study in Brazil. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2013;31:334-40.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Heiberg T, Finset A, Uhlig T, Kvien TK. Seven year changes in health status and priorities for improvement of health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2005;64:191-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
ten Klooster PM, Veehof MM, Taal E, van Riel PL, van de Laar MA. Changes in priorities for improvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis during 1 year of anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment. Ann Rheum Dis 2007;66:1485-90.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Griffioen MA, Dernetz VH, Yang GS, Griffith KA, Dorsey SG, Renn CL. Evaluation of dynamic weight bearing for measuring nonevoked inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice. Nurs Res 2015;64:81-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Tétreault P, Dansereau MA, Doré-Savard L, Beaudet N, Sarret P. Weight bearing evaluation in inflammatory, neuropathic and cancer chronic pain in freely moving rats. Physiol Behav 2011;104:495-502.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Robinson I, Sargent B, Hatcher JP. Use of dynamic weight bearing as a novel end-point for the assessment of Freund's Complete Adjuvant induced hypersensitivity in mice. Neurosci Lett 2012;524:107-10.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Quadros AU, Pinto LG, Fonseca MM, Kusuda R, Cunha FQ, Cunha TM. Dynamic weight bearing is an efficient and predictable method for evaluation of arthritic nociception and its pathophysiological mechanisms in mice. Sci Rep 2015;5:14648.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Terato K, Ye XJ, Miyahara H, Cremer MA, Griffiths MM. Inductionbychronic autoimmune arthritisin DBA/1 mice by oral administration of type II collagen and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Br J Rheumatol 1996;35:828-38.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Abdelnour A, Bremell T, Holmdahl R, Tarkowski A. Clonal expansion of T lymphocytes causes arthritis and mortality in mice infected with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1-producing staphylococci. Eur J Immunol 1994;24:1161-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Schaible UE, Kramer MD, Wallich R, Tran T, Simon MM. Experimental Borrelia burgdorferi infection in inbred mouse strains: Antibody response and association of H-2 genes with resistance and susceptibility to development of arthritis. Eur J Immunol 1991;21:2397-405.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Wooley PH, Seibold JR, Whalen JD, Chapdelaine JM. Pristane-induced arthritis. The immunologic and genetic features of an experimental murine model of autoimmune disease. Arthritis Rheum 1989;32:1022-30.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Verheijden GF, Rijnders AW, Bos E, Coenen-de Roo CJ, van Staveren CJ, Miltenburg AM, et al. Human cartilage glycoprotein-39 as a candidate autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1997;40:1115-725.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Courtenay JS, Dallman MJ, Dayan AD, Martin A, Mosedale B. Immunisation against heterologous type II collagen induces arthritis in mice. Nature 1980;283:666-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Glant TT, Mikecz K, Arzoumanian A, Poole AR. Proteoglycan-induced arthritis in BALB/c mice. Clinical features and histopathology. Arthritis Rheum 1987;30:201-12.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Zhang Y, Guerassimov A, Leroux JY, Cartman A, Webber C, Lalic R, et al. Induction of arthritis in BALB/c mice by cartilage link protein: Involvement of distinct regions recognized by T and B lymphocytes. Am J Pathol 1998;153:1283-91.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Terato K, Hasty KA, Reife RA, Cremer MA, Kang AH, Stuart JM. Induction of arthritis with monoclonal antibodies to collagen. J Immunol 1992;148:2103-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Asquith DL, Miller AM, McInnes IB, Liew FY. Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis. Eur J Immunol 2009;39:2040-4.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Svensson L, Jirholt J, Holmdahl R, Jansson L. B cell-deficient mice do not develop type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). ClinExpImmunol1998;111:521-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Holmdahl R, Jansson L, Andersson M, Jonsson R. Genetic, hormonal and behavioural influence on spontaneously developing arthritis in normal mice. Clin Exp Immunol 1992;88:467-72.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Kouskoff V, Korganow AS, Duchatelle V, Degott C, Benoist C, Mathis D. Organ-specific disease provoked by systemic autoimmunity. Cell1996;87:811-22.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Maffia P, Brewer JM, Gracie JA, Ianaro A, Leung BP, Mitchell PJ, et al. Inducing experimental arthritis and breaking self-tolerance to joint-specific antigens with trackable, ovalbumin-specific T cells. J Immunol 2004;173:151-6.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Brackertz D, Mitchell GF, Mackay IR. Antigen-induced arthritis in mice. I. Induction of arthritis in various strains of mice. Arthritis Rheum 1977;20:841-50.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Dawson J, Gustard S, Beckmann N. High-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging for the investigation of knee joint damage during the time course of antigen-induced arthritisin rabbits. Arthritis Rheum 1999;42:119-28.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Yoshino S, Quattrocchi E, Weiner HL. Suppression of antigen- induced arthritis in Lewis rats by oral administration of type II collagen. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:1092-6.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Bevaart L, Vervoordeldonk MJ, Tak PP. Evaluation of therapeutic targets in animal models of arthritis: How does it relate to rheumatoid arthritis? Arthritis Rheum 2010;62:2192-205.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Monach P, Hattori K, Huang H, Hyatt E, Morse J, Nguyen L, et al. The K/BxN mouse model of inflammatory arthritis: Theory and practice. Methods Mol Med 2007;136:269-82.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Keffer J, Probert L, Cazlaris H, Georgopoulos S, Kaslaris E, Kioussis D, et al. Transgenic mice expressing human tumour necrosis factor: A predictive genetic model of arthritis. EMBO J 1991;10:4025-31.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Li P, Schwarz EM. The TNF-alpha transgenic mouse model of inflammatory arthritis. Springer Semin Immunopathol 2003;25:19-33.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Kollias G, Douni E, Kassiotis G, Kontoyiannis D. On the role of tumor necrosis factor and receptors in models of multiorgan failure, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Immunol Rev 1999;169:175-94.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Lipsky PE, van der Heijde DM, St Clair EW, Furst DE, Breedveld FC, Kalden JR, et al. Infliximab and methotrexate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Trial in Rheumatoid Arthritis with Concomitant Therapy Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1594-602.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Genovese MC, Bathon JM, Martin RW, Fleischmann RM, Tesser JR, Schiff MH, et al. Etanercept versus methotrexate in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: Two-year radiographic and clinical outcomes. Arthritis Rheum 2002;46:1443-50.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Basbaum AI. Reviews: Topical, systematic and once again, comprehensive. Pain 2006;124:237.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Olesen AE, Andresen T, Staahl C, Drewes AM. Human experimental pain models for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of analgesic drugs. Pharmacol Rev 2012;64:722-79.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Gregory NS, Harris AL, Robinson CR, Dougherty PM, Fuchs PN, Sluka KA. An overview of animal models of pain: Disease models and outcome measures. J Pain 2013;14:1255-69.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Tappe-Theodor A, Kuner R. Studying ongoing and spontaneous pain in rodents-challenges and opportunities. Eur J Neurosci 2014;39:1881-90.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Cobos EJ, Ghasemlou N, Araldi D, Segal D, Duong K, Woolf CJ. Inflammation-induced decrease in voluntary wheel running in mice: A nonreflexive test for evaluating inflammatory pain and analgesia. Pain 2012;153:876-84.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Laux-Biehlmann A, Boyken J, Dahllöf H, Schmidt N, Zollner TM, Nagel J. Dynamic weight bearing asa non-reflexive method for themeasurementofabdominalpaininmice. Eur J Pain 2016;20:742-52.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Miladinovic T, Singh G. Spinal microglia contribute to cancerinducedpainthroughsystemxC-mediatedglutamaterelease. Pain Rep 2019;4:e738.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Laux-Biehlmann A, Boyken J, Dahllöf H, Schmidt N, Zollner TM, Nagel J. Dynamic weight bearing as a non-reflexive method for the measurement of abdominal pain in mice. Eur J Pain 2016;20:742-52.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Luong TN, Carlisle HJ, Southwell A, Patterson PH. Assessment of motor balance and coordination in mice using the balance beam. J Vis Exp. 2011;(49):2376.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Doré-Savard L, Otis V, Belleville K, Lemire M, Archambault M, Tremblay L, et al. Behavioral, medical imaging and histopathological features of a new rat model of bone cancer pain. PLoS One 2010;5:e13774.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Lolignier S, Amsalem M, Maingret F, Padilla F, Gabriac M, Chapuy E, et al. Nav1.9 channel contributes to mechanical and heat pain hypersensitivity induced by subacute and chronic inflammation. PLoS One 2011;6:e23083.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Butler RK, Finn DP. Stress-induced analgesia. Prog in Neurobio 2009;88:184-202.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Imbe H, Iwai-Liao Y, Senba E. Stress-induced hyperalgesia: Animal models and putative mechanisms. Front Biosci 2006;11:2179-92.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Mogil JS. Animal models of pain: Progress and challenges. Nat Rev Neurosci 2009;10:283-94.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Mogil JS, Davis KD, Derbyshire SW. The necessity of animal models in pain research. Pain 2010;151:12-7.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Rice AS, Cimino-Brown D, Eisenach JC, Kontinen VK, Lacroix-Fralish ML, Machin I, et al. Animal models and the prediction of efficacy in clinical trials of analgesic drugs: Acritical appraisal and call for uniform reporting standards. Pain 2008;139:243-7.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Villanueva L. Is there a gap between preclinical and clinical studies of analgesia? Trends Pharmacol Sci 2000;21:461-2.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Cook AD, Pobjoy J, Sarros S, Steidl S, Dürr M, Lacey DC, et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a key mediator in inflammatory and arthritic pain. Ann Rheum Dis 2013;72:265-70.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
čngeby Möller K, Svärd H, Suominen A, Immonen J, Holappa J, Stenfors C. Gait analysis and weight bearing in pre-clinical joint pain research. J Neurosci Methods 2018;300:92-102.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Blanshan N, Mahowald ML, Dorman C, Frizelle S, Krug HE. The analgesic effect of intraarticular OnabotulinumtoxinA in a female murine model of collagenase induced chronic degenerative monoarthritis. Toxicon 2019;158:8-15.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Nandakumar KS, Holmdahl R. Collagen antibody induced arthritis. Methods Mol Med 2007;136:215-23.  Back to cited text no. 53
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Animal Models fo...
Induced Arthriti...
Spontaneous Arth...
Dynamic Weight-B...
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed201    
    Printed10    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded42    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]