Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 163
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 52-55

The role of phantoms in magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery

Department of Electrical Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus

Date of Web Publication23-Sep-2019

Correspondence Address:
Christakis Damianou
30 Arch. Kyprianou, 3036 Limassol
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/digm.digm_13_19

Rights and Permissions

This article reviews the role of mimicking materials used in focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) under magnetic resonance imaging. FUS is a noninvasive surgery that has many applications in oncology and neurology. Phantoms (mimicking materials) are mostly based in agar or gelatin phantoms.

Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging, phantom, ultrasound

How to cite this article:
Damianou C. The role of phantoms in magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery. Digit Med 2019;5:52-5

How to cite this URL:
Damianou C. The role of phantoms in magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery. Digit Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2023 Mar 29];5:52-5. Available from: http://www.digitmedicine.com/text.asp?2019/5/2/52/267607

  Introduction Top

Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) has the potential to heat tumors and therefore is used extensively for oncological applications in the liver, breast, brain, fibroids,[1],[2],[3],[4],[5] kidney,[6] and prostate.[7] This procedure is minimally invasive because FUS is applied externally to the body. FUS produces localized heating, and therefore, the heating is not affecting the surrounding tissue or intervening tissue. The procedure can be monitored either by ultrasound imaging[8],[9] or by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15] Although at the beginning of the deployment of robotics systems in the MRI, the task was considered challenging, recently it has been shown[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21] that the fear of MRI compatibility does not exist anymore. Ultrasonic imaging is the simplest and most inexpensive method to guide FUS. However, MRI offers superior contrast than ultrasound and offers magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry, which can monitor thermal heating nearly in real time. In addition, MRI is the gold standard regarding the diagnosis of tumors. Therefore, despite the expensive capital investment needed to install MRI, the numerous benefits of MRI make it as an attractive solution to guide focused ultrasound.

FUS was explored in many organs or tissues that are accessible by ultrasound. For example, it was used in the kidney,[22],[23] eye,[24] prostate,[7],[25],[26],[27] brain,[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33] liver[34],[35],[36],[37] breast cancer,[38],[39],[40] bone,[41],[42],[43],[44] and gynecological tumors.[45],[46],[47],[48],[49],[50]

  Materials and Methods Top

Data were acquired from articles search in PubMed.

  Results Top

In the last years, there were a lot of initiatives to develop mimicking materials (phantoms) that have ultrasonic properties close to humans (especially attenuation, absorption, and propagation velocity). With ultrasonic phantoms, experiments in animals can be minimized. Phantoms are less expensive than experimental animals. Moreover, phantoms are more ergonomic compared to experimental animals. With the use of preservatives, phantoms can be used repeatedly for many months. One category of phantoms that are quite functional for ultrasound research is an agar-based phantom.[47] This phantom uses plastic to mimic the brain and agar-based mixture to mimic brain tissue.[51] This phantom is MRI-compatible and is ergonomic. Recently, agar-based phantoms were fully characterized[52] and therefore, all thermal and acoustical properties are known. Agar-based phantoms can mimic various organs. The breast was mimicked using plastic for ribs and agar-based mixture for breast tissue.[53] With this phantom, one issue that was examined, was the effect of the ribs on the delivery of focused ultrasound. In another phantom,[44] plastic was used to mimic bone, and the agar-based mixture was used to mimic tissue that exists within the bone. With this phantom, the objective was to assess the beam distortion due to the presence of the bone. The results revealed MR temperature maps which were similar to maps obtained in humans.

  Conclusions Top

MRI-guided focused ultrasound is a field that it is growing very fast. Although many successful clinical applications exist (for example, treatment of essential tremor[54] or treatment of fibroids[55]), the deployment of other clinical applications is slow. One reason is the extensive animal evaluation needed. Phantoms can play an important role to speed up the deployment of new applications in MRI-guided FUS. The role of three-dimensional printing[56],[57] is important and can assist the design of FUS phantoms. FUS is mostly applied for oncological applications. Recently, it has shown that it may have important applications in neurological applications such as the treatment of essential tremor,[54] or for sonothrombolysis,[58],[59],[60],[61],[62],[63] or MRI-guided sonothrombolysis,[64],[65],[66],[67] or for plaque removal from arteries.[68],[69] Recently, agar-based phantoms have been fully characterized,[52] and thus, not only acoustical properties are known (acoustic propagation, attenuation) but also thermal properties such as thermal conductivity. This creates a mimicking material which is closer to the acoustical and thermal properties of tissue. The melting point of Agar is close to 85°C and therefore is suitable for focused ultrasound experiments. Gelatin-based mimicking materials have melting point close to 45°C and therefore, not suitable for focused ultrasound experiments. Gelatin phantoms though can be a useful mimicking option for experimentation for diagnostic ultrasound which does not produce significant heating.

Mimicking materials (phantoms) can be created to mimic either bone (using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)) or to mimic soft tissue (agar-based mixture). With skull phantoms, the objective was to assess the beam distortion due to the presence of the skull.

In future, more advanced phantoms will be needed to assess the focused ultrasound propagation for other types of organs (accessible by focused ultrasound). There is also need to find materials that can adjust the value of thermal conductivity and thermal conductivity (thermal properties). Trying to modify the thermal properties (conductivity or specific heat), alters other properties such as acoustic attenuation or scattering or propagation velocity (acoustical properties). Hence, there will be some trade-offs between thermal and acoustical properties. One cannot achieve both categories in a mixture. Therefore, there are still many challenges regarding the design of mimicking materials for focused ultrasound.

Another property of mimicking materials that was never assessed is acoustic absorption. This is attributed to the fact that measurement of ultrasonic absorption is a very complicated procedure. In order to measure the ultrasonic absorption one needs to measure the rate of temperature change by avoiding conduction. This was measured in the past using thermocouples. This is a complicated procedure and might not result to a very accurate measurement due to the effect of the size of the thermocouple. One was to overcome this problem now is to use data acquired using MR thermometry. To the best of our knowledge, such measurement (ultrasonic absorption) does not exist for mimicking materials (phantoms) either for agar based or gelatin based.

It is also possible that these mimicking materials are used for other technologies such as radio frequency, laser, or microwaves. For these technologies, the acoustical properties of phantoms might not be of interest, but as long as the thermal properties are preserved, the phantoms can be of intense interest.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Chapelon JY, Margonari J, Vernier F, Gorry F, Ecochard R, Gelet A.In vivo effects of high-intensity ultrasound on prostatic adenocarcinoma dunning R3327. Cancer Res 1992;52:6353-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
ter Haar G, Sinnett D, Rivens I. High intensity focused ultrasound – A surgical technique for the treatment of discrete liver tumours. Phys Med Biol 1989;34:1743-50.  Back to cited text no. 2
Lele PP. A simple method for production of trackless focal lesions with focused ultrasound: Physical factors. J Physiol 1962;160:494-512.  Back to cited text no. 3
Vykhodtseva NI, Hynynen K, Damianou C. Pulse duration and peak intensity during focused ultrasound surgery: Theoretical and experimental effects in rabbit brain in vivo. Ultrasound Med Biol 1994;20:987-1000.  Back to cited text no. 4
Linke C, Carteensen EL, Frizzell LA. Elbdawi A, Fridd CW. Localized tissue destruction by high intensity focused ultrasound. Arch Surg 1973;107:887-91.  Back to cited text no. 5
Hynynen K, Damianou CA, Colucci V, Unger E, Cline HH, Jolesz FA. MR monitoring of focused ultrasonic surgery of renal cortex: Experimental and simulation studies. J Magn Reson Imaging 1995;5:259-66.  Back to cited text no. 6
Bihrle R, Foster RS, Sanghvi NT, Fry FJ, Donohue JP. High-intensity focused ultrasound in the treatment of prostatic tissue. Urology 1994;43:21-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
Maass R, Damianou C, Sanghvi N. Tissue Temperature Estimationin vivo with Pulse Echo. IEEE Symposium on Sonics and Ultrasonics; 1995. p. 1225-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
Maass-Moreno R, Damianou CA, Sanghvi NT. Noninvasive temperature estimation in tissue via ultrasound echo-shifts. Part II.In vitro study. J Acoust Soc Am 1996;100:2522-30.  Back to cited text no. 9
Hynynen K, Damianou C, Darkazanli A, Unger E, Schenck JF. The feasibility of using MRI to monitor and guide noninvasive ultrasound surgery. Ultrasound Med Biol 1993;19:91-2.  Back to cited text no. 10
Hynynen K, Damianou C, Alexander A, Unger E, Cline H, Schenck J. Demonstration of MR-guided noninvasive US surgery of the kidney. Radiology 1993;189:224.  Back to cited text no. 11
Hynynen K, Darkazanli A, Damianou CA, Unger E, Schenck JF. Tissue thermometry during ultrasound exposure. Eur Urol 1993;23 Suppl 1:12-6.  Back to cited text no. 12
Hynynen K, Darkazanli A, Damianou CA, Unger E, Schenck JF. The usefulness of a contrast agent and gradient-recalled acquisition in a steady-state imaging sequence for magnetic resonance imaging-guided noninvasive ultrasound surgery. Invest Radiol 1994;29:897-903.  Back to cited text no. 13
Damianou C. MRI monitoring of the effect of tissue interfaces in the penetration of high intensity focused ultrasound in kidney in vivo. Ultrasound Med Biol 2004;30:1209-15.  Back to cited text no. 14
Damianou C, Ioannides K, Milonas. Positioning device for MRI-guided high intensity focused ultrasound system. Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2008;2:335-45.  Back to cited text no. 15
Hynynen K, Damianou C, Darkazanli A, Unger E, Levy M, SchencK J. On-line MRI monitored noninvasive ultrasound. Proc Ann Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 1992;14:350-1.  Back to cited text no. 16
Damianou C, Ioannides K, Hadjisavas V, Milonas N, Couppis A, Iosif D, et al. MRI monitoring of lesions created at temperature below the boiling point and of lesions created above the boiling point using High intensity focused ultrasound. J Biomed Sci Eng 2010;3:763-75.  Back to cited text no. 17
Yiallouras C, Damianou C. Review of MRI positioning devices for guiding focused ultrasound systems. Int J Med Robot 2015;11:247-55.  Back to cited text no. 18
Sagias G, Yiallouras C, Ioannides K, Damianou C. An MRI-conditional motion phantom for the evaluation of high-intensity focused ultrasound protocols. Int J Med Robot 2016;12:431-41.  Back to cited text no. 19
Yiannakou M, Menikou G, Yiallouras C, Ioannides K, Damianou C. MRI guided focused ultrasound robotic system for animal experiments. Int J Med Robot Comput Assist Surg 2017;13:e1804.  Back to cited text no. 20
Yiallouras C, Menikou G, Yiannakou M, Damianou C. Software that controls a magnetic resonance imaging compatible robotic system for guiding high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy. Digit Med 2017;3:123-32.  Back to cited text no. 21
  [Full text]  
Damianou C.In vitro andin vivo ablation of porcine renal tissues using high-intensity focused ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol 2003;29:1321-30.  Back to cited text no. 22
Damianou C, Pavlou M, Velev O, Kyriakou K, Trimikliniotis M. High intensity focused ultrasound ablation of kidney guided by MRI. Ultrasound Med Biol 2004;30:397-404.  Back to cited text no. 23
Lizzi FL, Coleman DJ, Driller J, Franzen LA, Jakobiec FA. Experimental, ultrasonically induced lesions in the retina, choroid, and sclera. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1978;17:350-60.  Back to cited text no. 24
Yiallouras C, Mylonas N, Damianou C. MRI-compatible positioning device for guiding a focused ultrasound system for transrectal treatment of prostate cancer. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2014;9:745-53.  Back to cited text no. 25
Yiallouras C, Ioannides K, Dadakova T, Pavlina M, Bock M, Damianou C. Three-axis MR-conditional robot for high-intensity focused ultrasound for treating prostate diseases transrectally. J Ther Ultrasound 2015;3:2.  Back to cited text no. 26
Madersbacher S, Pedevilla M, Vingers L, Susani M, Marberger M. Effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound on human prostate cancer in vivo. Cancer Res 1995;55:3346-51.  Back to cited text no. 27
Fry WJ, Mosberg WH Jr., Barnard JW, Fry FJ. Production of focal destructive lesions in the central nervous system with ultrasound. J Neurosurg 1954;11:471-8.  Back to cited text no. 28
Britt RH, Lyons BE, Pounds DW, Prionas SD. Feasibility of ultrasound hyperthermia in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. Med Instrum 1983;17:172-7.  Back to cited text no. 29
Damianou C, Ioannides K, Hadjisavvas V, Mylonas N, Couppis A, Iosif D.In vitro andin vivo brain ablation created by high-intensity focused ultrasound and monitored by MRI. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2009;56:1189-98.  Back to cited text no. 30
Mylonas N, Damianou C. MR compatible positioning device for guiding a focused ultrasound system for the treatment of brain deseases. Int J Med Robot 2014;10:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 31
Giannakou M, Yiallouras C, Menikou G, Ioannides C, Damianou C. MRI-guided frameless biopsy robotic system with the inclusion of unfocused ultrasound transducer for brain cancer ablation. Int J Med Robot 2019;15:e1951.  Back to cited text no. 32
Alecou T, Giannakou M, Damianou C. Amyloid β plaque reduction with antibodies crossing the blood-brain barrier, which was opened in 3 sessions of focused ultrasound in a rabbit model. J Ultrasound Med 2017;36:2257-70.  Back to cited text no. 33
Sibille A, Prat F, Chapelon JY, Abou el Fadil F, Henry L, Theillère Y, et al. Extracorporeal ablation of liver tissue by high-intensity focused ultrasound. Oncology 1993;50:375-9.  Back to cited text no. 34
Chen L, Rivens I, ter Haar G, Riddler S, Hill CR, Bensted JP. Histological changes in rat liver tumours treated with high-intensity focused ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol 1993;19:67-74.  Back to cited text no. 35
Chen L, ter Haar G, Robertson D, Bensted JP, Hill CR. Histological study of normal and tumor-bearing liver treated with focused ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol 1999;25:847-56.  Back to cited text no. 36
Yang R, Reilly CR, Rescorla FJ, Faught PR, Sanghvi NT, Fry FJ, et al. High-intensity focused ultrasound in the treatment of experimental liver cancer. Arch Surg 1991;126:1002-9.  Back to cited text no. 37
Furusawa H, Namba K, Thomsen S, Akiyama F, Bendet A, Tanaka C, et al. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery of breast cancer: Reliability and effectiveness. J Am Coll Surg 2006;203:54-63.  Back to cited text no. 38
Gianfelice D, Khiat A, Amara M, Belblidia A, Boulanger Y. MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery of breast cancer: Correlation of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with histopathologic findings. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2003;82:93-101.  Back to cited text no. 39
Hynynen K, Pomeroy O, Smith DN, Huber PE, McDannold NJ, Kettenbach J, et al. MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery of fibroadenomas in the breast: A feasibility study. Radiology 2001;219:176-85.  Back to cited text no. 40
Napoli A, Anzidei M, Marincola BC, Brachetti G, Ciolina F, Cartocci G, et al. Primary pain palliation and local tumor control in bone metastases treated with magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound. Invest Radiol 2013;48:351-8.  Back to cited text no. 41
Lee JE, Yoon SW, Kim KA, Lee JT, Shay L, Lee KS. Successful use of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery for long-term pain palliation in a patient suffering from metastatic bone tumor. J Korean Soc Radiol 2011;65:133-8.  Back to cited text no. 42
Menikou G, Yiallouras C, Yiannakou M, Damianou C. MRI-guided focused ultrasound robotic system for the treatment of bone cancer. Int J Med Robot 2017;13. doi: 10.1002/rcs.1753. Epub 2016 Jul 15.  Back to cited text no. 43
Menikou G, Yiannakou M, Yiallouras C, Ioannides C, Damianou C. MRI-compatible bone phantom for evaluating ultrasonic thermal exposures. Ultrasonics 2016;71:12-9.  Back to cited text no. 44
Stewart EA, Gedroyc WM, Tempany CM, Quade BJ, Inbar Y, Ehrenstein T, et al. Focused ultrasound treatment of uterine fibroid tumors: Safety and feasibility of a noninvasive thermoablative technique. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:48-54.  Back to cited text no. 45
Hesley GK, Felmlee JP, Gebhart JB, Dunagan KT, Gorny KR, Kesler JB, et al. Noninvasive treatment of uterine fibroids: Early Mayo Clinic experience with magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound. Mayo Clin Proc 2006;81:936-42.  Back to cited text no. 46
Mikami K, Murakami T, Okada A, Osuga K, Tomoda K, Nakamura H. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids: Early clinical experience. Radiat Med 2008;26:198-205.  Back to cited text no. 47
Ikink ME, Voogt MJ, Verkooijen HM, Lohle PN, Schweitzer KJ, Franx A, et al. Mid-term clinical efficacy of a volumetric magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound technique for treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Eur Radiol 2013;23:3054-61.  Back to cited text no. 48
Epaminonda E, Drakos T, Kalogirou C, Theodoulou M, Yiallouras C, Damianou C. MRI guided focused ultrasound robotic system for the treatment of gynaecological tumors. Int J Med Robot 2016;12:46-52.  Back to cited text no. 49
Damianou C, Yiannakou M, Menikou G, Yiallouras C. MRI guided coupling for a focused ultrasound system using a top to bottom propagation. J Ther Ultrasound 2017;5:6.  Back to cited text no. 50
Menikou G, Dadakova T, Pavlina M, Bock M, Damianou C. MRI compatible head phantom for ultrasound surgery. Ultrasonics 2015;57:144-52.  Back to cited text no. 51
Menikou G, Damianou C. Acoustic and thermal characterization of agar based phantoms used for evaluating focused ultrasound exposures. J Ther Ultrasound 2017;5:14.  Back to cited text no. 52
Menikou G, Yiannakou M, Yiallouras C, Ioannides C, Damianou C. MRI-compatible breast/rib phantom for evaluating ultrasonic thermal exposures. Int J Med Robot 2018;14. doi: 10.1002/rcs.1849.  Back to cited text no. 53
Lipsman N, Schwartz ML, Huang Y, Lee L, Sankar T, Chapman M, et al. MR-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy for essential tremor: A proof-of-concept study. Lancet Neurol 2013;12:462-8.  Back to cited text no. 54
Stewart EA, Rabinovici J, Tempany CM, Inbar Y, Regan L, Gostout B, et al. Clinical outcomes of focused ultrasound surgery for the treatment of uterine fibroids. Fertil Steril 2006;85:22-9.  Back to cited text no. 55
Damianou C, Yiannakou M, Yiallouras C, Menikou G. The role of 3-D printing in MRI guided focused ultrasound surgery. Digit Med 2018;4:22-6.  Back to cited text no. 56
  [Full text]  
Yiallouras C, Yiannakou M, Menikou G, Damianou C, A multipurpose positioning device for magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery. Digit Med 2017;3:138-44.  Back to cited text no. 57
Francis CW, Blinc A, Lee S, Cox C. Ultrasound accelerates transport of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator into clots. Ultrasound Med Biol 1995;21:419-24.  Back to cited text no. 58
Blinc A, Francis CW, Trudnowski JL, Carstensen EL. Characterization of ultrasound-potentiated fibrinolysis in vitro. Blood 1993;81:2636-43.  Back to cited text no. 59
Polak JF. Ultrasound energy and the dissolution of thrombus. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2154-5.  Back to cited text no. 60
Damianou C, Hadjisavvas V, Ioannides K.In vitro andin vivo evaluation of a magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound system for dissolving clots in combination with thrombolytic drugs. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2014;23:1956-64.  Back to cited text no. 61
Damianou C, Mylonas N, Ioannides K. Sonothromblysis in combination with thrombolytic drugs in a rabbit model using MRI-guidance. Engineering 2013;5:352-6.  Back to cited text no. 62
Papadopoulos N, Yiallouras C, Damianou C. The enhancing effect of focused ultrasound on TNK-tissue plasminogen activator-induced thrombolysis using anin vitro circulating flow model. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2016;25:2891-9.  Back to cited text no. 63
Papadopoulos N, Menikou G, Yiannakou M, Yiallouras C, Ioannides K, Damianou C. Evaluation of a small flat rectangular therapeutic ultrasonic transducer intended for intravascular use. Ultrasonics 2017;74:196-203.  Back to cited text no. 64
Papadopoulos N, Damianou C. Microbubble-based sonothrombolysis using a planar rectangular ultrasonic transducer. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2017;26:1287-96.  Back to cited text no. 65
Papadopoulos N, Damianou C.In vitro evaluation of focused ultrasound-enhanced TNK-tissue plasminogen activator-mediated thrombolysis. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2016;25:1864-77.  Back to cited text no. 66
Damianou C, Hadjisavvas V, Mylonas N, Couppis A, Ioannides K. MRI-guided sonothrombolysis of rabbit carotid artery. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2014;23:e113-21.  Back to cited text no. 67
Couppis A, Damianou C, Kyriacou P, Lafon C, Chavrier F, Chapelon JY, et al. Heart ablation using a planar rectangular high intensity ultrasound transducer and MRI guidance. Ultrasonics 2012;52:821-9.  Back to cited text no. 68
Damianou C, Christofi C, Mylonas N. Removing atherosclerotic plaque created using high cholesterol diet in rabbit using ultrasound. J Ther Ultrasound 2015;3:3.  Back to cited text no. 69

This article has been cited by
1 Numerical Evaluation of the Human Skull with Focused Ultrasound Stimulation
Yi Huang, Peng Wen, Bo Song, Yan Li
Acoustics Australia. 2023;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Artifacts’ Detection for MRI Non-Metallic Needles: Comparative Analysis for Artifact Evaluation Using K-Means and Manual Quantification
Marwah AL-Maatoq, Melanie Fachet, Rajatha Rao, Christoph Hoeschen
Magnetochemistry. 2023; 9(3): 79
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Full coverage path planning algorithm for MRgFUS therapy
Anastasia Antoniou, Andreas Georgiou, Nikolas Evripidou, Christakis Damianou
The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Numerical Evaluation of the Influence of Skull Heterogeneity on Transcranial Ultrasonic Focusing
Chen Jiang,Dan Li,Feng Xu,Ying Li,Chengcheng Liu,Dean Ta
Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2020; 14
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Materials and Me...

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded274    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 4    

Recommend this journal